The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
is one of five Middle Atlantic States in the United States of America.
One of Pennsylvania's nicknames is the Quaker State; in colonial
times, it was known officially as the Quaker Province, in recognition
of Quaker William Penn's First Frame of Government constitution
for Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience.
Penn knew of the hostility
Quakers faced when they opposed rituals, oaths, violence, and ostentatious
frippery. Pennsylvania has also been known as the Keystone State
since 1802, based in part upon its central location among the original
Thirteen Colonies forming the United States. It was also a keystone
state economically, having both the industry common to the North,
making such wares as Conestoga wagons and rifles, and the agriculture
common to the South, producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco.
Pennsylvania has 51 miles
(82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline
along the Delaware Estuary. Philadelphia is Pennsylvania's largest
city and is home to a major seaport and shipyards on the Delaware